Our Multifrequency Lockin Amplifier (MLA) was used to realize a new type of low-noise measurement of nonlinear current-voltage characteristics. The method solves many long-standing problems for such measurements in high-impedance nano-scale junctions, allowing for easy cancellation of parallel displacement current, separation of the galvanic and displacement currents flowing in the junction, as well as enhanced measurement speed due to parallel acquisition of many Fourier coefficients.
Researchers at Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung (BAM) in Berlin have recently published two papers using Intermodulation AFM, studying boehmite nanoparticles embeded in an epoxy matrix. One paper in MDPI Polymers (https://doi.org/10.3390/polym11020235) combines Intermodulation AFM with scanning Kelvin Probe Microscopy (SKPM) while the other, published in Elsevier Polymer (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.polymer.2018.12.054) studies the sample with both Intermodulation AFM for nanoscale resolution force measurements and with DMTA (dynamic mechanical thermal analysis) to obtain information about the crosslinking density of the matrix.
Follow the links above for to read the open access papers. BAM is a senior scientific and technical Federal institute with responsibility to the Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy [in Germany]. It tests, researches and advises to protect people, the environment and material goods (BAM, about us).
Nanostructure Physics at KTH published a paper describing intermodulation spectroscopy as an alternative to pump-probe methods for reconstructing fast dynamics. The paper derives the theoretical limitations on this frequency-domain approach and it demonstrates the reconstruction of the fast (30 ns) decay of surface charge using multifrequency electrostatic force microscopy.
Intermodulation Products is part of a new EU funded research project QAFM, financed by the FET-Open program. The project aims to apply ideas from the field of Opto-mechanics, and push toward a quantum-limited force sensor for dynamic AFM.
Intermodulation Products starts work on a new project to control and readout superconducting quantum bits, as part of a large Swedish consortium: the Wallenberg Center for Quantum Technology (WACQT).
Intermodulation Products is a silver sponsor of the 4th International Conference on Scanning Probe Microscopy on Soft and Polymeric Materials in Leuven, Belgium. We will exhibit our lockin amplifier and AFM applications and there will also be several talks from researchers using our techniques.
Intermodulation Products will demonstrate the new third-generation multifrequency lockin, the MLA-3 at the 7th Multifrequency AFM conference in Madrid.
Update: Daniel Forchheimer of Intermodulation Products, won the 2nd prize poster award for his poster describing how machine learning algorithms such as K-means clustering could be used in combination with Intermodulation Atomic Force Microscopy.
Intermodulation Products will have a booth at the European Materials Research Society annual conference In Warsaw, Poland. Talks will be given by Riccardo Borgani and Daniel Forchheimer.
Intermodulaiton Products had a display booth and gave demonstrations at the 28th International Conference on Low Temperature Physics. Our Multifrequency Lockin Amplifier (MLA) is making in-roads in to the low temperature physics community, where it has been used to multiplex the readout of mechanical oscillators working in superfluid.
The journal Current Opinions in Colloid & Interface Science published an invited review article: 'Quantitative force microscopy from a dynamic point of view' . The article describes recent developments in dynamic AFM, placing Intermodulation AFM in a broader context.
Intermodulation Electrostatic Force Microscopy (ImEFM) maps the surface potential with very with high spatial resolution. By applying a DC bias to the tip (not possible with standard KPFM) the method can also study how the surface potential changes with the injection and extraction of charges in an insulator. The method was used to study individual surface-modified aluminum oxide nanoparticles embedded in a low-density polyethylene (LDPE) matrix. This material is currently of great interest for high voltage transmission cables. The experimental results were explained with a simple band structure model where localized electronic states in the band gap (hole traps) exist in the vicinity of the nanoparticles. See our publication in Nano Letters.
The latest results with Intermodulation AFM were reported: mechanical mapping of viscoelastic surfaces, high resolution surface potential maps of graphene, machine learning to optimize material contrast, and interaction analysis in terms of force kernels. Intermodulation Products demonstrated the 42 frequency lockin at the booth.
Come and visit us at the exibition of the Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft, March 8-10, in Regensburg, Germany. Drop by booth 102, or if you would like to book a special meeting time, feel free to contact us at firstname.lastname@example.org.
The United States Patent and Trademark Office issued a patent to Intermodulation Products for the Intermodulation Lockin. The Intermodulation Analyser (ImLA)™ (also called Multifrequency Lockin Amplifier, MLA™) was preiously described in the Review of Scientific Instruments. The MLA™ enables Intermodulation Spectroscopy and Intermodulation Atomic Force Microscopy. Dr. Erik Tholén, CEO of Intermodulation Products AB and chief architect of the instrument reports: "We are really happy to see this patent come in to place, securing our technical innovation. Already in it's third generation, the MLA is starting to make a big impact in laboratories around the world. We're excited to get this fantastic instrument in to the hands of new users who want to develop there own multifrequency measurements."
Intermodulation AFM makes ground breaking advancement in probing and understanding the viscoelastic properties of Soft material interfaces. A collaboration between the University of Mons and KTH Nanostructure Physics used Intermodulation AFM (ImAFM) and dynamic force quadratures to show that large amplitude surface motion results when dynamic AFM is performed on soft materials. Prof. David Haviland says of this work: "The observation of large amplitude surface motion changes our entire understanding of material property mapping with the AFM. No longer can we represent the interaction in terms of simple force-distance curves. ImAFM was instrumental in making these observations, and the moving surface model introduced in this work represents a new approach to probing viscoelasticity with the AFM."